Programming by Case in point – Visible Interfaces

In the mid 1970s Smith launched the procedure of Programming by Instance with a plan referred to as Pygmalion, Smith elaborated on this in Observe What I Do: Programming by Demonstration (Chapter 1). This shown the require to explain algorithms by concrete examples somewhat than abstractly. ‘Example-based mostly Programming: a pertinent visible strategy for discovering to program’ (Guibert et al, 2004) reveal and expands on Smiths operate with an example demonstrating how numbers are unsuccessful to reveal the strategy at the rear of them. The example is a numerical representation of a triangle. This representation is ‘fregean’ due to the fact it does not demonstrate the concept of a triangle. Upcoming to this is a diagram of the triangle that does display the principle. Following to this is a diagram of the triangle that does display the idea, this is referred to as ‘analogical’ illustration because it includes the context of the facts. Like the context of the information and facts allows a human being to learn meanings or relationships in the facts which would not often be obvious. (Hanna, 2005) and (Elliott, 2006)deliver an interface for direct manipulation of shapes in this analogical way by developing an interactive triangle manipulation instance making use of the Haskell useful programming language.

Semantic world wide web languages allow for the context of the facts to be represented in documents and so make it probable to depict details in an analogical way, as nicely as allowing two way interaction, main to an advancement in facts discovery.

The progress of visual person interfaces has been a significant action ahead. The use of pictorial metaphors these as folders to depict a selection of data files has greatly aided human pc interaction. Pictorial metaphors give visible responses so the person understands what the application procedure is undertaking. This method can be applied more dynamically in simulations. Simulations depict the authentic world dilemma and give continual comments to the consumer on how the method is progressing. In this feeling, all software package ought to be regarded as a simulation. Pictorial metaphors are static, while a users’ mental model is built up of mental photos connected together by a set of regulations. The user runs a mental model like a simulation. Static person interfaces depend on a consumer to string alongside one another pictures into a mental design which properly signifies what the method is carrying out. A person could create a psychological design in reaction to user interface metaphors which is inconsistent with the method product.

Simulation can enable to guarantee that the designers’ model, program product and users’ design are all the identical. This matter is explored in [Crapo et al. 2000 and 2002] and is the foundation of the visualisation methods applied to empower the user to develop and comprehend models that are subsequently translated into application representations. This is also explained in chapter just one of Watch What I Do: Programming by Demonstration [Cypher, 1993], points out how the Pygmalion language makes an attempt to bridge the gap concerning the programmer’s psychological model of a subject matter and what the laptop can take. The writer of this procedure David Smith went on to build office environment oriented icons as element of the Xerox’s “Star” personal computer task.

My research based mostly on these ideas is available at isles/amrc/seeds/Visualisation.htm

and my examples at kingdom/~phale/InteractiveSVGExamples.htm


Smith, D. C., 1977. A Pc System to Model and Promote Artistic Imagined. Basel: Birkhauser.

Smith, D. C., 1993. Pygmalion: An Executable Digital Blackboard. In: A. Cypher, ed. Enjoy What I Do: Programming by Demonstration. MIT Press, Chapter 1 – ISBN:0262032139.

Guibert, N., Girard, P., Guittet, L., 2004. Example-dependent Programming: a pertinent visible method for learning to software. Proceedings of the performing convention on Highly developed visual interfaces. pp 358-361 – ISBN:1-58113-867-9.

Hanna, K., 2005. A doc-centered atmosphere for Haskell. 17th Global Workshop on Implementation and Software of Practical Languages IFL 2005 Dublin, Eire – September 19-21 2005.

Elliott C., – Useful Programming by Interacting with Tangible Values – http://conal.internet/papers/Eros – Conal Elliott – April 8, 2006.

Crapo, A. W., Waisel, L. B., Wallace, W. A., Willemain, T. R., 2002. Visualization and Modelling for Intelligent Techniques. In: C. T. Leondes, ed. Smart Systems: Engineering and Purposes, Volume I Implementation Strategies, 2002 pp 53-85.

Crapo, A. W., Waisel, L. B., Wallace, W. A., Willemain, T. R., 2000. Visualization and the method of modeling: a cognitive-theoretic view. Conference on Awareness Discovery in Information – Proceedings of the sixth ACM SIGKDD worldwide conference on Knowledge discovery and details mining pp 218-226.

Cypher, A., 1993. Check out What I Do Programming by Demonstration. MIT Press, Chapter 1 – ISBN:0262032139.

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